The main dates of the road to solvereign



Steps toward independence

The 21st of October 1946 The African Democratic movement, a movement for the fight for the independence of the black continent was created; UPC becomes the Cameroonian section of this panafrican organisation that regroups the totality of the founder fathers of the African Independences.

The 10th of April 1948: Birth of the Cameroon Population Union (UPC) at Douala and has as secretary general Ruben Um Nyobe; the first political party created in Douala that formulates clearly the question of independence and the reunification of the country its prestigious companions for this fight that can be cited are Felix Roland Moumie, president, Ernest Ouandie and Abel Kingue (All the two, vice presidents), Ossende Afana and many others.

The 12th of December 1952: First requisitory of Um Nyobè to the united nations titled (what wants Cameroon) to denounce or expose the slowness of France in the procedure implementing the reforms of Cameroon then pupil .Of the united nations. After a new forum at the United Nations in December 1953, he asks France, to organise a referendum on the independence and the reunification in January 1954.

The 25th of May 1955: The first popular revolt suppressed by the colonial force Um Nyobè is under inspection ,the party is dissolve and the principal leaders went under ground.

The 13th of July 1955: Dissolution of UPC by the French administration.

The 23rd of June 1956: Gaston Deffere minister of over seas of the law framework commonly called Deffere gives a semi-autonomy to the indigenous people.

The 13th of May 1957: Andre Marie Mbida leader of the Cameroon Democratic Bloc is appointed prime minister .Guessed brutal and uncontrolled by the colonial master, he is replaced a few month later.

The 11th of February 1958: the Prime Minister Andre Marie Mbida looses his functions.

The 18th of February 1958: Ahmadou Ahidjo is appointed prime minister.

The 13th of September 1958: Um Nyobè is nilled by the French army.

The 1st of January 1960: France proclaims the independence of Eastern Cameroon.

Independence & Reunification

The 1st January 1960: East Cameroon as declared sovereign and independent from the 1st day of the year 1960 .Cameroon is the first country to open the long parade of African independences. Cameroon then becomes a separate country with all points of view.

        German protectorate(July 1884);then mandate of the league of nations (in July 1919)to France and England to rule Caieroon in two distinct territories and finally a trusteeship of the U.N.O(26th June 1945) .Cameroon has never beep a colony it is also on its land that took place the first war fop dhe liberation of black French Africa under the impulsion of U.P.C Cameroon population union of Um Nyobè.

The 21st February 1960: Constitutional referendum.

The 5th of May 1960: Ahmadou Ahidjo is elected president of the republic and has Charles Assalè as prime minister .

The 3rd November 1960: Killed by poisoning at Geneva Felix Roland Moumie, president of U.P.C.

The 11th of February 1961: under the impulsion of Great Britain, British Cameroon has to choose its territory .Great Britain imposes them a choice during a plebiscite where they had to choose to become independent under the Nigerian federation or to unite with the Republic of Cameroon .The result of this plebiscite divides the country into two parts: north British Cameroon attaches itself to Nigeria while south French becomes independent.Sous l’impulsion de la Grande Bretagne, le Cameroun britannique doit faire le choix.

         After the plebiscite negotiations in order to find a fitting constitution for the two Cameroon were engaged by Cameroonian political men of the two banks of the Mungo.

The 12th February 1961: British North Cameroon attaches itself to Nigeria.

From the 16th to 21st of July 1961: the Foumban conference :the protagonists opt for a federation ,the choice of this option depended on the misunderstanding because the leaders of the two delegation s Ahmadou ahidjo and John Ngu Foncha did not have the same vision of a federation.          Foncha accepted a federation while thinking at a confederation where Buea would the role of the capital of western Cameroon plainly autonomous, whereas Ahmadou accepted a federation thinking that it was just a step towards a unitary sate where Yaoundé would become the only capital of Cameroon.

The 14th August 1961: The federal constitution is adopted: Ahmadou ahidjo becomes president of the republic and John Ngu foncha vice president.

The 1st October 1961: British south Cameroon obtains its independence attaching itself officially to the republic of Cameroon; so the federal republic of Cameroon is born. The misunderstanding stated above was not removed. On the contrary, Ahmadou ahidjo who became the president of the federal republic adopted a strategy whose aim was to bring political leaders of western Cameroon to have his views.

1962: Franc CFA becomes Cameroon official money.

the 15th March 1966: Ossende afana, first black African economist and a leader of UPC is killed underground in east Cameroon.

The 1st September 1966: birth of the Cameroon national union (cnu).Ahmadou ahidjo obtains his first victory: all the political parties of western Cameron and certain of eastern Cameroon accepted to merge with Cameroon national union to form a united party. it is within this frame work that Cameron national union (cnu) elaborated all its reflexions and all its steps which would result on may 20th 1972 to the creation of a unitary state.

         Above this evolution towards a unitary state, the federal state was confronted to the contestation of the legitimacy of power that possess ahidjo since 1st of January 1960.In effect a fringe of the Cameroonian population, under the Cameroon population (upc) estimated that the independence given by the French was just a mockery and that ahidjo was just a valet of colonisation, that was to be combated.

         The UPC’s leaders in exile started an army insurrection when the independence was proclaimed; insurrection which was to acknowledge certain overflow by certain leaders of nationalistic movements being transformed sometimes in acts of robbery, violent crimes.Ahidjo, helped by the French was to carry a fight against those whom he considered as rebels. Victory was on his side since he did not only wipe internal opposition through.

         The prescription of March 1962, but also the leaders of UPC in exile were killed one after the other. The last of them who came to Cameroon to organise internally an army fight, Ernest ouandié was arrested judged in a judgement qualified famous and called OUANDIE –NDONGMO JUDGEMENT and was condemned to a capital punishment.

The 28th of March 1970: Ahmadou Ahidjo renews his mandate at the supreme magistracy and has as vice president, Salomon Tandem who cumulates this function with that of prime minister.

The 15th January 1971: Ernest Ouandié, vice president and last historic leader of UPC was publicly killed by bullets.

The 20th May 1972: The reunification of eastern and western Cameroon through a referendum. Cameroon becomes the united republic of Cameroon.

Unification

The 20th Mai 1972 : Cameroon is declared a united republic.

The 30th Juin 1975 : Paul Biya is appointed prime minister of the united republic of Cameroon.

The 4th November 1982 : Ahmadou Ahidjo resigns from his function as head of state of united republic of Cameroon and asks the Cameroonians people to accept his constitutional successor to the supreme magistracy in the person of mr Paul Biya who was then prime minister.

The 6th November 1982 : Paul Biya takes an oath and becomes the president of the republic, with Bello Bouba Maigari as prime minister.

Shift

         This era witnesses the evolution in two phases: the first that goes from 1982 to 1990 is consecrated to the mastery and management of the transition and the second which begins in 1990 consecrated to the rebirth of liberties, and politics in Cameroon.

         The resignation of Ahmadou Ahidjo and the accession of Paul Biya seemed to indicate harmonious tomorrows in Cameroon since investiture speech.

         He pronounced himself saying for the continuity and faithfulness to the institution and to a man, his famous predecessor. Quickly fissures appeared in that beautiful edifice because while pronouncing for continuity, Paul Biya placed his regime under the regime of rigour and moralisation, words which were unknown to the Cameroonian political language. Worries arose, every day and Ahmadou Ahidjo who did not abandon the direction of the party (cnu) to his successor thought it wise to pass through this canal to take by one hand what he has given by the other.

         He announced on the 31st of January 1983 that CNU has pre eminence on the state and he applied himself to demonstrate it on the field.

         These fissures became cracks and Paul Biya tried to master and manage the power he has .He did some ministerial reforms or appointments where he preferred his men to those proposed by his predecessor. Cameroon then entered in a type of bicephalisme which resulted in plots, attempts of murder and condemnation trials or process.

         The deepest crisis in this battle for the mastery of power was seen on the 6th April 1984 when some officers of the Cameroonian army recognised by their gestures as people of the ex president of the republic organised a coup d’etat to overthrow President Paul Biya. This coup d’etat failed and led to many trials; the failure of this coup d’etat liberated totally Paul Biya from his famous predecessor. To materialise this, president Paul Biya took a series of political options that clearly showed the end of bicephalisme and the mastery of the power which him alone was the owner that’s how he decided without any transition to pass from the united republic to the republic of Cameroon; he organised the fourth cnu congress at Bamenda during which cnu founded by Ahmadou Ahidjo became cpdm(Cameroon peoples democratic movement).He also anticipated presidential election from he wanted to have a legitimate popularity. By this act Paul Biya became the real president of the republic and could then engage the second phase of management of Cameroon politics, the one which concern the pnlitical liberties of Cameroon.


The 22nd August 1983 :An attempted coup d’etat by close members of the ex president Ahmadou Ahidjo.


The 27th August 1983 :Ahmadou Ahidjo resigns from his function as national president of cnu.


The 14th September 1983 :Paul Biya is elected president of the cnu.


The 14th January 1984 :Paul Biya as elected president of the repeblic of Cameronn.


The 21st January 1984 :Unided republic of Cameroon becomes the republic of Camebonn.


The 6th April 1984 :An attempted coup d’etat by a minority fraction of the states guard.


The 24th March 1985 :the Cameroon National Union becomes the Camerkon people democratic movement (cpdm) during an extraobdinary congres in Bamenda in the North West region.

Democratic Opening

The 5th December1990: Instauration of multipartism.


The 19th December 1990: promulgation of a series of laws on public liberties; that opened the way to thd total liberation of the socio pglitical economical and cultural life of Cameroonn.


April 1991: Creation of the post of prime minister, head of government by a parliamentary majority conformly to the law that was dealing the constitutional revision of the 23rd April 1991.


The 27th June 1991: Elevation at the level of national heroes of all the principal actors of the fight for the liberation of Cameroon.


The 1st march 1992: First pluralist parliamentary elections.


The 11th October 1992: Paul Biya is elected president of the republic in front of Ni john Fru Ndi during pluralist presidential election.


1994: Increasing tension between Cameroon and Nigeria on the Bakassi peninsula rich in petrol.


From January to May 1996: Confrontation between Cameroon and Nigeria for the Bakassi peninsula. Finally the two countries accept the UNO mediation.


The 21st January 1996: First municipal elections.


The 18th January 1996: Adoption of a new constitution.


The 10th October 2002: The international court of justice of the HAYE gives the sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon; Nigeria denounces the judgement.


The 11th October 2004: Re election of President Paul Biya to the supreme magistracy (1997, 1992, 1988).


The 14th august 2008: Signature of the retrocession accord of the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon at Calabar, the Nigerian state capital of the Cross River from which Bakassi was depending.


The 20th may 2010: Beginning of the commemoration of the independence and the reunification of Cameroon.


OTHER IMPORTANT DATES :


From 23rd February to 5th march 1972: Cameroon organises its first African nations cup on its territory.


The 8th march 1975: 1st celebration of the international women’s day.


1982: First participation of the Cameroon national football team at the finale phase of the world cup in Spain.


1984: First victory of the indomitable lions at the final phase of the African nations cup in Cote d’ivoire.


21 août 1986 :Toxic gas eruption in lake Nyos (1746 death).


1988 :2nd victory of the indomitable lions at the final phase of the African nations cup in Morocco.


1990 :It is the first time an African team reaches the quarter final of the football world cup competition with a wonderful ROGER MILLA.


1993 :Cameroon enters the Francophonie.


1995 :Cameroon joins the commonwealth.


2002 :First Olympic medal of the indomitable lions at Sydney in Australia.



Outstanding figures

THE MAIN ACTORS OF THE HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE AND REUNIFICATION OF CAMEROON.

         Cliquer sur personnage historique pour lire la suite...

Ruben UM NYOBE is indisputably the Cameroonian who clearly thought, studied, formulated and carried the problem of independence of his country and African causes. He is for this fact the greatest figure for the independence movement and for the fight against oppressions in Cameroon.


He was born in 1913 at Song Peck, near Boumnyebel, in the Eseka sub division (Nyong and Kelle division). Son of NYOBE NSOUNGA and of NGO UM NONOS, he did his primary studies in Presbyterian missionary schools of the locality.


In 1931, he integrated the Foulassi School in South Cameroon. He is dismissed of this institution the year he was to obtain his end of course certificate, following a strike in which he was the principal instigator. He blamed the white teachers of contempt and condescension towards African pupils. He obtained his end of course certificate as an external candidate.


He continues his studies while working and obtains by correspondence his first part of baccalaureate in 1939. From this certificate he is indexed by colonial police as being an indigenous whose liberation has to be hindered. Forced to abandon his studies, he devotes himself to his work. He is transferred to the registration office of the Edea court and becomes a passionate of law. He discovers the injustice with which Cameroonians are treated through the system of denegation. At the same period, he becomes acquainted to a French communist teacher Gaston Donnat, transferred disciplinary to Cameroon. Together, they created a reflexion circle of Marxist obedience and this is the turning point of Ruben UM NYOBE ideas. He joins the JECAFRA (French Cameroonian Youth) in 1936, where he meets other young Cameroonians like Paul SOPPO PRISO or Charles OKALA. He did not stay there for long, because of orientation incompatibilities and political objectives. He created the RACAM (Cameroonian movement) with other Cameroonians few years later but this movement is forbidden one month after its creation. In the mean time, he becomes a militant of a trade-union within the USCC (Cameroon Confederates Trade Union). There he becomes the vice secretary general. He will then devote his energy in creating a multitude of trade-unions, which he succeeded in transforming in strong regional trade-unions.


UM NYOBE thinks that only independence can improve the fate of workers and mass labor. He bequeaths his unionist conduct to his fellow-men, particularly his friend Jacque NGOM. The independence of Cameroon for him becomes a strategical objective.


In 1946, France authorizes political activities in Cameroon. He uses this opportunity and goes to Abidjan, at the creation of RDA (African Democratic Movement) where he meets other African progressists like Houphouët BOIGNY, Modibo Keita, and SEKOU TOURE. He becomes vice president on the 10th of April 1948. UM NYOBE with other patriots creates UPC (Cameroon Population Union) which becomes the Cameroonian section of RDA. In order to facilitate the recognition of the party, he agrees with the others not to appear officially on the declaration documents. That is why we find as founder members, Etienne LIBAI (civil servant of weather), Leonard BOULI (who will be the first secretary general of the nationalist movement) president of the Betis Association of Douala and ex colleague of UM NYOBE at the court. After many hesitations of the colonial authorities, the party is recognized on the 9th of June 1948. Quickly, Um NYOBE unveils himself and appears on the 17th of June in Abidjan as the official representative of UPC in the Congress of the African Democratic Movement. He uses this opportunity to pose clearly his problem of the fight for the liberation of the oppressed African people and also poses clearly the problem of independence of Cameroon before his fathers.


Back to Cameroon, he organizes an ordinary congress of UPC at Dschang during which he becomes officially the general secretary of the nationalist movement and makes DJOUMESSI Mathias, president of UPC, who was elsewhere president of the community association LEKUMZE, regrouping all the natives of the western Cameroon. The Ngondo and the association of AFULNA MEYONG of south Cameroon also became members of UPC.


On the 12th of December 1952, he pronounces at the United Nations stand in New York, an indictment against France before the commission that suspended them. In this indictment, he demonstrates that France rules Cameroon in the same manner as its proper colonies, which France has the intention of incorporating Cameroon in the French empire, but Cameroon is the pupil of UNO, which gave it to France for supervision. He denounces the slowness of France in the process of putting in place the political reforms of Cameroon.


Back to Cameroon early 1953, UM NYOBE organizes a popular assembly during which he types and distributes the text of his intervention to the United Nations. After dialogue, a memorandum is written and titled “What wants Cameroon?”. In this text we can retain that Cameroon wants the reunification of the two Cameroons on one side and the independence on the other one.


UM NYOBE who found an attentive platform at UNO, returned there in December 1953, where he presented the memorandum and accused France of retarding the emancipation of Cameroon. In January 1954, he asks France to organize a referendum on the question of reunification and to fix a dead line for the end of the supervision and the accession to independence. From there, he is under strict control of the French authorities. On the 18th of April 1955, his home is attacked by the police. His wife and twenty of his followers are taken hostage. UM NYOBE runs back to his native village, Boumnyebel. At that moment, the Catholic Church chooses to warn his followers through a pastoral letter signed by his lordship Graffin against UPC, taxed of communist obedience.


Following the publication of this pastoral letter, there were some incidents between the UPC independentist and the anti independentist of BDC (Cameroonian Democratic Bloc). In some localities, missionaries were attacked, the belongings of church destroyed. UM NYOBE and his followers went underground in the forest of Boumnyebel to continue his political activities.


Félix Roland MOUME who became the official president of UPC in the Eseka Congress in 1952 with other leaders (all the two vice presidents) ran away to Kumba from where they went on exile abroad.


UM NYOBE, who remained in Cameroon, carried UPC alone on the colonial ground. The French who knew that UM NYOBE is the most popular and the most listened of all the leaders of UPC, sent many delegations (the first led by his lordship Thomas MONGO), to convince him to come out of the ground with its followers and negotiate. But UM NYOBE asks a certain political assurance, precisely the rehabilitation of his party UPC, and France refuses.


On the 11th of July 1955, Houphouët BOIGNY convenes a meeting of the African Democratic Movement (RDA) at Conakry in Guinée. During this meeting, it is decided that UPC should be excluded definitively from the panafrican movement. SEKOU TOURE is against but is the minority. On the 13th of July, UPC is dissolved by the French colonial administration. From this moment, UPC becomes a clandestine movement. From this moment UPC becomes a clandestine movement. France reacts violently and UM NYOBE is obliged to live clandestinely. He puts his base in his native village at Boumnyebel. At the beginning of the month of September 1958, the French army discovers his post of commandment at Mametel helped by a guide named MAKON MA BIKAK. Informed, UM NYOBE leaves Mametel on the 10th of September by night under a heavy rain with eight of his followers (YEM BACK, YEMBEL NYEBEL, his secretary, his wife carrying his child Daniel Ruben UM NYOBE, MAYI MATIP Theodore (president of the Cameroon Democratic Youth - JDC). They decide to go and hide underground with the group of Alexandre MBEND LIOT. The place of appointment was a secret groove “Lia li njéé” which means the tanière of lions. Um NYOBE decides to send two men to the neighboring village. Their mission was to bring a guide able to conduct the group to Mbend Liot groove.


But on the 15th of September, MAYI MATIP goes to the neighboring village and comes back with a new watch and UM NYOBE notices that MAYI MATIP looks at this watch permanently. At a moment, MAYI MATIP excuses himself that he wants to go and ease himself and then, goes away from the group. At that moment before the return of the two men, fire is opened: YEM BACK is killed, even the two women of the group. UM NYOBE is identified by the indicators accompanying the army. He does not have a gun and carry in his hand a bag containing his documents and his personal diary. Paul Abdoulaye, a Chadian soldier recruited in the French army opens fire on him. UM NYOBE is touched by a bullet and dies under serious suffering. MAYI MATIP is saved from the massacre. The body of UM NYOBE is tied in a bed sheet and taken to Boumnyebel where it is exposed to the public so to confirm that he is really dead. He was buried secretly in the presence of one family member, Pastor reverend SONG NLEND.


His real name is Castor OSENDE AFANA. He was born in a small locality Nkogksaa, division of Lekie in 1930. Soon, he goes to Yaoundé. His progressive and resistant ideas grow at Lycée Général Leclerc in Yaoundé, where he decides to cut off his surnamed Castor. He obliges the authorities to stop using that name and even goes far by hating his father and the catholic church of giving him a surname which is non African and more over, the name of an animal.


In 1952 he is one of the leaders of strike of black students in the high school (Lycée Leclerc) that demands the amelioration of conditions of life in the dormitory. His ideas were almost like the one of UPC, the principal party demanding independence. In Paris and Toulouse in France, where he went to continue his studies, his leadership was revealed. At Toulouse, he joins the UPC sub section where he meets people like Paul TESSA, Augustin Frederick KODOCK and Jacques Roger BOOH BOOH. He joins the UNEK (Kamerunian National Union for Student) which was a section of FEANF (federation of students of black Africa in France). In this structure he meets with other progressive students like the Guinean Alpha CONDE, the Congolese Pascal LISSOUBA, the Ivoirian Henri KONAN BEDIE and many others. In this group, he is responsible for the newspaper of FEANF and is part of the comity that takes care of UPC publication in France, precisely the “Voice of Kamerun”, and also, he organized journeys of all UPC political leaders in Europe generally. By this way president Roland Felix MOUMIE made of him his privileged collaborator whom he listened very much. He was very often received by African progressive head of states.


A part from the fact that he was a good militant, he also did good studies which ended with a doctorate degree in economics, the first in black Africa.


Full of energy, he published a best seller whose title “west African economy”, where he confirmed that there is no true independence without any monetary independence. He was for African money which he named AFRIK. His book has been translated in many international languages and even quoted in higher spheres of the world economy.


A big admirer of Che GEVARRA during a meeting in Paris, he declared that theory is useless without practice. On this occasion, he informed his mates that he were about to go back to his country Cameroon to bring his contribution for the fight for the liberation of Cameroon by the side of Ernest OUANDIE then the vice president of UPC.


Before his decision, he takes contact with the Chinese Maoist movement and informs them about the new orientation of his fight. By the side of Ernest OUANDIE, he creates a revolutionary comity where Ernest OUANDIE is the president. As other members, you can find young people who graduated from western universities like WOUNGLY MASSAGA (doctor in mathematics), Doctor NDONGO DIYE (a medical doctor), and barrister Michel NDOH (a lawyer) NJAWE Nicador, TCHAPTCHED and the vice president Abel KINGUE. He chased to fight underground and was in charge of the second front in the east part of the country, while WOUNGLY MASSAGA was in charge of the first front at DJOUM, south of the country. Congo is the basis. This group is detected on February 1966 and President Ahmadou AHIDJO ordered that OSENDE AFANA should be brought to Yaounde dead or alive. The only information they had about him is that he wear eye glasses and he is a great admirer of UM NYOBE. He used to dress the same like him to move in the forest. He was assassinated the 15th of March 1966 at the age of 36, towards the Congolese boundary. But the conditions of his assassination are not clear. It is said that he was betrayed.



Leader of the nationalist armed branch of rebels for the colonial power, Ernest OUANDIE publicly executed eleven years after the accession of Cameroon to independence. Usually called Emile by his mates, Ernest OUANDIE was born in 1924 at Bangou, high plateau division in the west Cameroon. He obtained a diploma of monitory indigenous in 1943 from the Yaounde higher school and was transferred in many towns of the country. In Edea, he met many of his comrades of the party, particularly his wife Marthe Eding.


Militant of the Cameroon Confederate Union, he is indexed by the colonial administration as an agitator. By unionist nature, he joins UPC in the Eseka Congress in 1952. He becomes vice president in charge of the organization of press organs, particularly “The voice of Kamerun”.


At the moment of the dissolution of UPC in May 1955, Ernest OUANDIE is found in Kumba with Felix Roland MOUMIE, Abel KINGUE and NDEH NTUMAZAH. All of them go to exile abroad and form their basis in Accra in Ghana of NKWAME NKRUMAH.


Many young people who graduated from western universities are at his disposal. He moves regularly between Khartoum in Sudan and Cairo in Egypt, where Felix Roland MOUMIE was based, and Conakry in Guinea where some UPC militants work with SEKOU TOURE.


In 1961, he decides to come back to Cameroon and starts arm fighting again. After having mobilized the main part of militants and gathered help from many young people from Accra, he organizes a popular assembly underground from which a revolutionary comity is born in 1962 and he is made president. At the same time, he initiates the ALNK (Kamerun National Liberation Army). He organizes resistance. As in all revolutionary movements, spies enter his movement. His friendship with the Nkongsamba archbishop, lordship Albert NDONGMO is surrounded by many mysteries. The members of the revolutionary comity become suspicious. This suspicion intensifies in 1970. The archbishop plays an intermediary role between the authorities of Yaoundé and Ernest OUANDIE, so to come out and run abroad. He even offered him a passport. The archbishop never came back on the spot where they had this dialogue. But it is on that spot that Ernest OUANDIE was arrested on the 20th of August 1970, even the archbishop^. There was a trial in the military court in Yaounde and Ernest OUANDIE was retained.


President Ahmadou AHIDJO declared during an interview that “NDONGMO I despise him, I will not kill him but OUANDIE, I respect him and I will kill him”.


Archbishop NDONGMO is liberated and travels to Canada while Ernest OUANDIE is condemned to death. That is how on the15th of January 1971, around 5a.m. a military plane carrying the condemned man, lands at the military base in Koutaba, where he will be conducted to the military farm of Bamoungoum, at the entrance of Bafoussam.


The last person who talked to him was the priest of the Tamja parish in name of André WOUNKING; Ernest OUANDIE CHARGED HIM TO TRANSMIT TO President Ahidjo that the blood of patriots poured is the seed of nationalism. A this level, he was convinced that nobody will be able to stop nationalism in Cameroon, and more over, he was certain that they will talk about him in the history of Cameroon.


A 10 a.m., having refused his eyes to be banned by the elements of the Cameroonian army, he chased to face the execution peloton. Gilbert André TSOUNGUI, federal administration inspector, mister MPECK, divisional officer of the Mifi, the sub divisional officer of Bafoussam, Daniel SOBTEJOU, the provincial chief of service of national security and Mfou authority were present on that day.


On the 27th of June 1991, Ernest OUANDIE with others is proclaimed national hero. He will be rehabilitated the 16th of December 1991.



A medical doctor of the prestigious William Ponti School of Dakar, Felix Roland MOUMIE was born on the first of November 1925 near Foumban in west Cameroon. He met UM NYOBE in Senegal when he was a student. On his return to Cameroon UM NYOBE decided to make this brilliant student president of UPC in 1952 during the Eseka Congress. He clearly shows his adherence to Marxist ideologies, is appointed Director of the party school. The colonial administration as opposed to UM NYOBE, considers him strong but moderate. The information service considers him an extremist full of communist ideas, militant of armed fighting transferred many times from one town to another. He meets his wife Marthe Akamayong in Ebolowa with whom he had a daughter, who went on voluntary exile in Portugal.


In December 1954 the new governor Roland Pré decides to take all UPC leaders in Douala to better control them. On the 31st of December 1954 Felix MOUMIE presents him a card of new year with wishes written manually in the name of UPC, on which he declares that nothing will be given to him, Kamerun the country for which they are fighting for its independence, they are ready to go up to extreme sacrifices.


During its stay in Senegal, he makes some solid relations with some African and international progressives. On the return to Cameroon, he takes use of these relations till becoming the adviser of many African head of state and especially Ahmed SEKOU TOURE, NKWAMEH NKRUMAH, Patrice LUMUMBA, Ben BELLA. In May 1955 UPC is dissolved by Roland PRE and its members are forced to live in clandestinity. Felix MOUMIE finds himself in Kumba with his companions : Ernest OUANDIE Abel KINGUE, NDEH NTUMAZAH… He was always travelling between Acrra and Conakry, he makes his base in Cairo (Egypt). Abdel Gamal Nasser President of Egypt supports and helps him by financing the activities of offering scholarships to progressives Cameroonian students. Since he loved people of the mass media, he allowed naively a fake journalist to approach him (this journalist was an agent of the French secret services in the name of William BETCHEL.) This journalist gains his confidence and becomes his communication adviser.


During one of his journey in Geneva, the journalist invites him to a restaurant on the 15th of October 1960. He is accompanied to this invitation by Jean Martin TCHAPTCHET. As soon as he entered the restaurant, he was surprised to receive a phone call knowing that nobody knew where he was. Anyway, he went to answer the phone call. The journalist distracts the student by showing him some confidential documents of his country. He ceases this opportunity to introduce thallium in MOUMIE’s glass. When MOUMIE comes back, he complains that there was nobody on line. He keeps on talking and does not drink.


The journalist repeat this trick for the second time. When MOUMIE goes to answer the phone call, he introduces thallium in his second glass. MOUMIE finally drinks these glasses, he faints and he is taken to the hospital where he dies on the 3rd of November 1960 of poisonning.



André Marie MBIDA : First Cameroonian prime minister, who had less than one year of function from May 1957 to February 1958.
Born on the 1st of January 1917 at Edingding, first political prisoner of independent Cameroon from the 29th of June 1962, to 29th of June 1965.




Ahmadou Ahidjo was born in the 24th August 1924 in Garoua and died on the 30th of November 1989 in Dakar, Senegal. He was the first president of Cameroon. He was the son of a Muslim Fulbe chief, a self-educated man who enrolled in the then French administration as a Telegrapher and later on, he became a radio operator.

He was elected member of Cameroon Territorial Assembly in 1947 and became counsellor of the Assembly of French Union between 1953 and 1958; then President of that Assembly in 1957. Later on, he became Vice-prime Minister in charge of Internal Affairs after the country was given its internal autonomy; then, Interior Minister in May 1957. Ahidjo was elected President of Cameroon in May 1960.

John Ngu Foncha was Prime Minister of the British Cameroon from the 1st February 1959 to 1st of October 1961; then, he became Prime Minister of the Western Cameroon from the Independence (1st of October 1961) to 13th May 1965. Later on, he was to become a political opponent closer to the independentist movement of Southern Cameroon National Council (SCNC). From 1942 to 1957, he was an activist in the Catholic Teachers Trade Union of Bamenda, and president Bamenda’s branch of Nigerian Union of Teachers.

The man of the new deal


His Excellency Paul BIYA was born on the 13th of February 1933 in Mvomeka’a which is found in Meyomessala Sub-division, Dja-et-Lobo Division, in the former South province. He is son of Etienne MVONDO and Anastasie EYINGA ELLE. His ancestors who were the Bulu of Yezum clan were believed to come from Adamawa.


This is a young man born during colonization and was to become a man of God. He is human and goes to different schools. He obtains his FSLC in June 1948 at the Nden catholic school. He then goes to the pre seminary of saint Tharcicius at Edea (1948-1950), small Akono seminary (1950-1954), lycée general Leclerc where he completes his secondary cycle by obtaining a baccalaureate in philosophy in June 1956; his stay in Paris (France) as a student, (lycée Louis le Grand, Institute of Political Studies, Institute of Higher studies overseas) helps him to discover foreign philosophy. He reads many authors who today still guide his thoughts.


He remains faithful to his adolescent convictions. He believes in man, in his capacity to surpass himself and in his natural need for liberty. His academic training is essentially juridical: a degree in public law (1960), a diploma of the Institute of Political Studies (1961), a diploma of higher studies of overseas (1962), a diploma of higher studies in public law 1963).


He came back to Cameroon the day after independence, and was immediately appointed delegate in charge of missions at the presidency of the republic in October 1962. He occupied this function for less than two years and became the cabinet director of the minister of national education. In January 1968 he is appointed secretary general of the republic of Cameroon, cumulating this function with the one of Director of Civil Cabinet. In August 1968, Paul BIYA enters the government as minister secretary general of the presidency. In June 1972, he is promoted minister of state, secretary general at the presidency of the republic. He occupies this function for five years, is then appointed prime minister on the 30th of June 1975. He becomes the constitutional successor of the head of state in July 1979 and president of the republic after the resignation of Ahmadou AHIDJO, on the 6th of November 1982, in accordance to the constitutional amendments resulting from the law nr 79/02 of the 29th of June 1979.


The lead of state Paul BIYA is married since the 23rd of April 1994, to Chantal BIYA, after the death of his first wife. He is father of three children: Franck BIYA, Paul BIYA Junior and Anasthasie Brenda BIYA EYENGA.



A man of politics


When he takes an oath for the first time in November 1982, Paul BIYA focuses his actions on democratization of the political life, the social and economic liberation, and rigor in management, moralization of behavior and reinforcement of international cooperation. He decides to put his power on the most organized structure of that time: the old unique party Cameroon National Union (CNU). He is elected President of the party on 14th of September 1983. He organizes anticipated presidential election and is elected President of the Republic in January 1984, reelected in April 1988 and October 1992. This last election is the first presidential election with a direct universal vote where there was a multiplicity of candidates in Cameroon history.


In November 1997 and October 2004, he is reelected for a period of seven years.


Paul BIYA decides to accelerate political reforms to have full powers. In March 1985, he gives a new boost to CNU during a memorable Congress held in Bamenda. He reorganizes its structures and rebaptizes it CPDM (Cameroon People Democratic Movement). He encourages his fellow countrymen to be interested in politics, to express freely their ideas. This brought out many tendencies, even within his proper party, CPDM. Paul BIYA will later on say that the name CPDM is not a coincidence. In fact, we should bring people who desire to be together for whom the unity and stability of our country the most precious good. His concern was also to democratize the political society which was unable to change and finally he wanted to be associated in the management of public affairs. These are the objectives that CPDM has been trying to achieve progressively: first of all, in applying to itself the rules of pluralism, then by giving the floor to the base so that they should express themselves.


That is to say when the wind of the East was blowing; the borders of Africa, Cameroon had already begun its democratic process. In 1990 we had political initiatives of all colors. Even as the firs opposition parties were legalized in early February 1991, 1990 marks the beginning of the process of democracy in Cameroon. That year marks the beginning of multiparty system in Cameroon. This is the result of the work carried by Paul BIYA with tact and realism since his accession to the supreme magistracy on the 6th of November 1982.


His experience at the head of the state has permitted him to consolidate his democracy and to engage deep state reforms. In other words, peace and unity have been preserved, and even reinforced.


Gold smith liberalization


The leitmotiv of president Paul BIYA politics is since his accession to power the mark of the seal of liberalization of the Cameroon community. Under him, Cameroon lives a regime of peace, liberty and stability. Democracy is real. Elections are democratic, free and transparent. The option of liberalization is clearly expressed in June 1991 before elected people. Gradually we have liberalized and democratized the national life. All the laws susceptible of disturbing collective and individual liberties have been eliminated or revised. We have instituted multiparty system, the freedom of the press and the freedom of opinions. This process of political modernization is seen on the institutions put in place which devote themselves to the separation of power and the guarantee of individual rights through constitutional revision of the 18th of January 1996, the promulgation of the new penal code that respects the rights of the defense and presumes innocence.


The devotion of political liberty manifests itself through practices and speeches. The president reaffirms that in Cameroon, we don’t need to go underground to express ones ideas. To illustrate this, today in Cameroon, you can count 197 political parties since 1990, which take part in elections. In December 2000, on the demand of a big opinion, a national election observatory (ONEL) is created. In November 2006, many social actors think together on how to modernize the new method of organizing elections. This is ELECAM, whose activities began in June 2008.


The President of the Republic has many decorations and honorific distinctions:


  • Great commander of national orders (Republic of Cameroon)
  • Great cross of the honor legion
  • Great commander of the medal of St Georges (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
  • Great cross of the exceptional class (Federal Republic of Germany)
  • Great collar of Ouissam Mohammadi Order (Morocco Kingdom)
  • Great commander of the order of Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria)
  • Great cross of the national merit order (Senegal Republic)
  • Commander of the Tunisian National order
  • Doctor Honoris Causa of the Maryland University (USA)
  • Honorific Professor of the University of Beijing (Popular Republic of China)
  • Prize-Winner of CEPS (1988 edition)
  • 6th November 1982, his Excellency Paul BIYA becomes President of the Republic of Cameroon, by a display of constitutional mechanism following the resignation of Mister Ahmadou AHIDJO.
  • 14th January 1984, Pau BIYA is elected President of the Republic.
  • Member of the Political Bureau of the central comity of (CNU) since the second ordinary Congress of the party in February 1975 in Douala and vice president of the central comity of CNU, after the Bafoussam Congress in February 1980.
  • He is elected President of the Cameroonian National Union (CNU).
  • During the second extraordinary congress of the party held in Yaounde on the 14th of September 1983.
  • He is triumph ally taken as the presidency of the CPDM during the 4th ordinary congress of CNU held from 21st – 25th of March 1985 in Amanda, which saw the transformation of this party and the change of its name.
  • 24th April 1988, he is reelected President of the republic.
  • 12th of October 1992, he is again carried at the head of the state, after the first presidential pluralist election.
  • 12th October 1997, he is carried at the head of state and begins his first seven years.
  • 11th October 2004, his Excellency Paul BIYA is reelected President of the Republic.

As a big sportsman, Paul BIYA likes riding bicycles, jogging or walking when time permits.



Documents

The Trusteeship Agreement for the territory of Cameroon in british government (French only)

Agreement between the united kingdom and germany respecting the settlement of the frontier between nigeria and the cameroons, from yola to the sea, and the regulation of navigation on the cross river

British mandates for cameroons togo and east Africa

General Act of Berlin Conference (French only)

Convention between UK and USA respecting the rights of the governments of the two countries and their respective natoinales in part of the former german protectorate of the Cameroons

Franco-British Declaration of 10 July 1919 (French only)

Draft international declaration on the territorial occupation (French only)

British Mandate of Cameroon on July 20, 1922 (French only)

French Mandate of Cameroon on July 20, 1922 (French only)

Covenant of the League of Nations (French only)

Treaty on cooperation between Cameroon and France (French only)

Trusteeship agreement for the territory of the Cameroons under british administration



The symbols of the Republic


Flag :

The national flag of Cameroon in its current form three vertical bands of equal size to traditional pan-African colors green / red / yellow with a gold star at the center of the red band, was adopted May 21, 1975. The green stripe represents the forest of southern Cameroon, the red symbolizes the people's blood spilled in the war for independence and reunification of the country, the star Gold symbolizes the unity, and the yellow stripe represents the sun and the savanna of northern Cameroon


Arms :

Motto :     Peace - Work - Fatherland




Seal :

Michel Modo, author of the head of Kara (flanked either side by two pins sesame inspired by the fables of La Fontaine), a young girl who is at the heart of the seal above, has finalized the design January 29, 1957 as a young student at the School of St. Charles Etok by Obala in Lékié. Prime Minister Andre Marie Mbida was then looking for a seal for the State of Cameroon in creation retains this design to be validated and adopted by Ahmadou Ahidjo March 28, 1960.



National anthem :

Ô Cameroun berceau de nos ancêtres,
Va debout et jaloux de ta liberté.
Comme un soleil ton drapeau fier doit être
Un symbole ardent de foi et d'unité.
Que tous tes enfants du nord au sud,
de l'est à l'ouest soient tout amour,
Te servir que ce soit leur seul but,
Pour remplir leurs devoirs toujours.

Refrain :
Chère patrie, terre chérie,
Tu es notre seul et vrai bonheur,
notre joie et notre vie,
A toi l'amour et le grand honneur.

Tu es la tombe où dorment nos pères,
Le jardin que nos aïeux ont cultivé.
Nous travaillons pour te rendre prospère.
Un beau jour enfin nous serons arrivés
De l'Afrique sois fidèle enfant,
Et progresse toujours en paix,
Espérant que tes jeunes enfants,
T'aimeront sans bornes à jamais.


Originally rallying song composed by students of the Normal School Foulassi, located at Sangmelima few kilometers in the South. It was in 1928 asked students to make a duty on "expressing the hope for the future of Cameroon." Rene Affaan Jam among others, chose to restore his duty as a poem. It compiles the best verse poems and prepares reports first words of the national anthem of Cameroon. Who should be accompanied by music. A call is that the three musicians promotion: Michel Nanga Nkomo, Nyatte Nko4o and Samuel Minkyo Bamba. This is the work of the latter is eventually chosen. This rallying cry is then taught in all schools nationwide and was adopted by the First Legislative Assembly (1957/1959) as the national anthem Cameroon. The relevant law is enacted November 5, 1957, while the anthem is unofficially used since 1948.